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BOUITIM OF THB
TORRT-Y BOTANICAL OMH
TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.
Vol. 24. Lancaster, Pa., May 29, 1897. No. 5.
Emily L, Gregory.
By ELIZABETH G. BRITTON.
Botany and Barnard College have lost an earnest and devoted
worker by the death of Doctor Gregory. Her loss is particularly
sad just now when Barnard is at the threshold of its new and en-
larged career, its scope and accommodations widened and its new
home nearly ready for occupancy. That Dr. Gregory was one of
the principal attractions of the College in the early days of its ca-
reer, cannot be denied, for at first, the number of special students in
botany exactly equalled, for three successive years, the total num-
ber of students in the College. She gave herself enthusiastically
to her work and spared neither her time nor her strength in her
devotion to her pupils, encouraging them to do original investiga-
tion and showing them by her own work and guidance in the
laboratory how to do it. Her own attainments were high and
diverse and she sometimes, perhaps, failed to realize that she be-
fitted more advanced and special work than her students were
qualified to accomplish, but whatever achievements are recorded
from those who have worked with her, have always been of true
scientific merit and often worthy of publication. Several have
been read before the Torrey Botanical Club and published in the
Bulletin and elsewhere. Besides this Dr. Gregory did her share
of " popularizing " botany by assisting with her pupils at the three
"Annual Exhibits of the Progress of Science, ,, held by the Acad-
emy of Sciences of New York in the spring of 1895-96 and 1897.
and by various private evening classes of men and women. The
high and special character of her training guided her studies en-
tirely into the lines of Morphology and Physiology, and for Sys-
tematic Botany she had very little interest, other than what was
necessary for the accomplishment of her work in her own chosen
fields. Neither can it be claimed thai: she accomplished a great deal
of original investigation on widely different lines, but her frequent
reviews in the Bulletin show that she kept informed on the most
advanced German investigations and theories and her little text-
book on the " Elements of Plant Anatomy " demonstrates that she
had thoroughly mastered a wide range of subjects and adapted
them for the use of her pupils. She was not clear nor concise in
her lectures and quizzes, but this came from her desire to impart
all that she could of the wealth of information she had in store and
is amply compensated for by the lasting influences which she has
left among those who have had the advantage of studying with
Personally Dr. Gregory was extremely attractive, not only for
her cheery good temper, but for her faculty in making friends and
for her kindly and personal interest in all with whom she came in
contact. She was simple and domestic in her tastes, preferring
quiet and social pleasures to any show or ostentation, enjoying
her "work for the work's sake," loving the truth and living an un-
selfish life which ended without any long or gradual failure of her
powers, or any serious suffering or painful iliness. She died
peacefully, believing in the faith of her parents, with full confi-
dence that everything had been done for her comfort by the
friends and relations about her and was accompanied to her grave
at Angola, N. Y., by loving friends and beautiful flowers. Her
memory remains among us, full of gayety and kindliness and
Emily Loriva Gregory was born at Portage, New York, on
December 31st, 1841. She received her early education at Albion
Seminary and after graduating from there she taught at Dunkirk
(Fredonia) Friendship Seminary and earned enough to go to Cor-
nell University in 1876, where she studied botany and literature,
taking her degree as Bachelor of Literature in 1 881. She held a
position at Smith College from 1 88 i-i 88 3 as teacher of botany,
and the following winter had charge of the laboratory work in
botany of the Harvard Annex. In 1 883-1884 she went abroad
and studied for two years at Strasburg under Prof. Wigand and
one year at Zurich, where on July 23d, 1886, she received her de-
gree of Doctor of Philosophy, having been one of the earliest of
American women to whom this honor was accorded. On her re-
turn to America she held a position at Bryn Mawr for two years
as associate in botany to Prof. E. B. Wilson, who was then pro-
fessor of biology at that institution. She resigned this position
because it was not congenial to her, and during the following
winter was associated with Prof. W. P. Wilson at the University
of Pennsylvania in developing its botanical laboratory.
In the spring of 1889 she was appointed instructor in botany
at Barnard College, and spent the summer abroad studying with
Prof. Schwendener, at Berlin, and purchasing microscopes, charts,
models and books for the new laboratory, the funds for the equip-
ment of which were supplied from private subscriptions by mem-
bers of the Torrey Botanical Club. She also spent her summer
vacations abroad in 1893, 1894, and 1896, and always came back
with renewed energy and zeal, as well as stores of books and
Her department grew rapidly in popularity and in numbers,
and it soon became necessary to secure the assistance of Miss
Effie Southworth, now Mrs. Volney M. Spalding, and later of
Miss Jean Howell. The collections for the laboratory were first
begun with the herbarium of Elizabeth G. Knight as a nucleus,
and subsequently that of Dr. Thomas Morong was added by pur-
chase, also with a fund raised by private subscription among the
members of the Torrey Botanical Club. A fellowship in botany
was also endowed by Mrs. Esther Herrman, one of our members.
The laboratory soon outgrew its cramped accommodation on
the top floor of 343 Madison avenue and in 1895 it was moved to
the top floor of No. 518 Fifth avenue. In 1896 Dr. Gregory was
appointed full Professor of Botany and Dr. Herbert M. Richards
was called to assist her. Together they had planned the new
courses and laboratories in Brinckerhoff Hall, but Dr. Gregory did
not live to see them completed, dying on April 21,1 897, just as the
-arrangements for moving her residence and laboratory had been
made. She will be missed at the meetings of the Torrey Club at
which she read several original papers. She has been connected
with the Bulletin as associate editor since 1889 and has contri-
buted thirty-five articles and reviews to its volumes, beginning
in 1886. She was also an occasional contributor to the Botan-
ical Gazette and an active member of the Society of American
Naturalists, whose yearly meetings she frequently attended. She
was elected a member of the American Association for the Advance-
ment of Science in 1892, having attended the meeting at Rochester
of that year and read a paper before the Botanical Section. She
had also studied for a brief period at Woods Holl, where she had-
planned to spend the coming season. Her death leaves the
botanical laboratory without any natural successor, though its
founders hope that one may be secured who will continue the
policy which she so ably represented.
The following minute was adopted by the Executive Committee
of the Board of Trustees of Barnard College at their meeting on
Thursday, April 22, 1897:
Professor Gregory gave to Barnard College, through the eight
years of its existence, a service in the highest degree loyal, en-
thusiastic and successful. Her influence in creating and maintain-
ing a high standard in scientific work was of great importance in
determining the character of the college. She had the good for-
tune to possess, together with great intellectual gifts, the graces of
character to make them effective, and her scholarship was in the
service of kindliness, of courage and of truth. The college bears
witness not only to her love of sound learning, but to the modesty
and openness of mind which were the rare and beautiful setting of
The following preamble and resolutions were adopted by the
Club at its meeting, held May 11, 1897:
Whereas; our esteemed fellow-member, Miss Emily L. Gregory
is lost to us by death, therefore it is
Resolved: that in realization of our loss we express our deep
sorrow for this sad event, at this untimely period when she was
just about to enter upon a new era in her career as a teacher, to
which we all, with her, had looked forward with happiest anticipa-
Resolved: that we have lost in her an accomplished scientist,.
a devoted teacher, a warm hearted, generous friend, and
Resolved: that a copy of these resolutions be presented to her
surviving relatives, to whom we extend our sincerest sympathies.
1. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 13 : 197-204. 1886. Illustrated. " The
Pores of the Libriform Tissue!'
2. Bot. Gaz. 12 : 16. 1887. "Death of Dr. Wigand."
3. Bot. Gaz. 12: 298. 1887. "Systematic Botany."
4. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 15 : 86-89. 1888. Review of K.
Goebel, " Ueber kiinstliche Vergrimung der Sporophylle von
Onoclea Struthiopteris Hoffm" (Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Gesell.
5: LXIX. 1887.)
5. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 15: 139-143. 1888. Review of F.
Noll, " Experimented Untersuchungeit iiber das Wachsthum der
Zellmembran." (Abh. d. Senck. nat. Gesell. 15: 101. 1887.)
•6. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 15: 194-198. 1888. Review of A. F.
W. Schimper, " Die Wechselbezeichnung zwischen Pflanzen und
Ameisen in tropischen Amerika." (Jena, Gustav Fischer. 1 888.)
7. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 15: 237-238. 1888. Review of L.
Kny, " An attempt to answer the question whether the freezing
of the seed influences the development of the plant afterward de-
veloping from the same." (Sitz. d. Gesell. Nat. Fr. z. Berl. 193.
8. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 15 : 269-271. 1888. Review of G. von
Krabbe, " Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Structur und des
WachsthumsvegetabilischerZellhaute!' (Pringsh. Jahrb. 18: 346.
9. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 15. 1889. Review of Paul Haupt-
fleisch, " On the Cell-membrane and gelatinous Envelope of the
Desmidsr (Greifswald, 1888.)
10. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 25-28. 1889. Review of Alfred
Moeller, " The so-called Spermatid of the Ascomycetes" (Bot.
Zeit. 46: 422. 1888.)
11. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 28-30. 1889. Review of Gaston
Bonnier's criticisms of Alfred Moeller " On the Culture of
Lichen-building Ascomycetes without Algae" and "The Germina-
tion of Lichen- spores on Moss protonema and on Algae which are
not like the Gonidia of the Lichens!' (Nat. Wiss. Rund. 27. O.
12. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 79-80. 1889. Review of some Ex-
periments by Hartig " On the Red Beech in reference to the Influ-
ence of Seed production on the Increase in Growth and the Reserve-
material of the Tree," the results of which were presented before
the Botanical Society of Munich. (Bot. Centr. 36 : 388.
13. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 80-82. 1889. Review of Hugo
Zukal, " On the Discovery of Hymenoconidium petasatum! r
(Bot. Zeit. 47: 62. 1889.)
14. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 82. 1889. Review of an article
by G. Haberlandt, " On the Chlorophyll bodies of the Selaginellae \
(Flora, 71: 291. 1888.)
15. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 113-116. 1889. Review of J.
Reinke, " Studies on the Tilopterideae" (Bot. Zeit. 47 : 102.
16. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 222-224. 1889. Review of Otto
von Mueller. " Durchbrechungen der Zellwand in ihren Bezieh-
ungen zur Ortsbewegung der Bacillariaceen!' (Ber. d. deutsch.
bot. Gesell. 7: 169. 1889.)
17. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 224-225. 1889. Review of C. von
Wisselingh, " On the Walls of suberous Cells!' (Bot. Centr.
38: 710. 1889.)
18. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 279-280. 1889. Review of Arthur
Meyer, u On the Structure of the Vittae in the Fruit of the Umbel-
liferae! y (Bot. Zeit. 47 : 342, 374. 1889.)
19. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 297-304. 1889. "Notes on some
Botanical Reading done in the Laboratory of Professor Schwen-
dener y in Berlin, in June and July y 1889."
20. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 33 2 ~333- l88 9- Review of an
article by Dr. H. Schenck, " On Aerenchyma. — A new Paper on
Plant Aeration!' (Pringsh. Jahrb. 20:526. 1889.)
21. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17 : 16-17. 1890. Review of Fritz
Mueller on " Freie Gefdssbiindel in den Halmen von Olyra! r
(Flora, 47: 414. 1889.)
22. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17: 38-39. 1890. Review of G. Haber-
landt on " The Encasing of Protoplasm in Reference to the Function
of the Cell-nucleus!' (Journ. Vienna Acad. Sci.)
23. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17 : 39-40. 1890. Review of M. Bus-
gen on the " Capture of Insects by Utncularia? (Ber. d.
deutsch. bot. Gesell. 6: LV. 1888.)
24. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17 : 76-77. 1890. Review of A. Wieler,
" Ueber Anlage und Ausbildung von Libriformfasern in Abhan-
gigkeit von dusseren Verhdltnissen? (Bot. Zeit. 47 : 517, 533,
25. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17: 247-255. pi. 109. 1890.
" Notes on the Manner of Growth of the Cell-wall?
26. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 18: 20-22. 1891. Review of Dr.
Overton, "On the Histology and Physiology of the Characeae?
[Bot. Cent. 44: 1, 33. 1890.]
27. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 18: 22-23. 1891. Review of E. Loew
on "Beitrdge zur blutenbiologischen Statistic? (Verh. bot. Ver.
d. Prov. Brandbg. 31: 1-63. 1890.)
28. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 18: 61-64. 1891. Review of Dr. Julius
Wiesner, "An Attempt to explain the Growth of the Plant Cell?
(Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Gesell. 8: 196. 1890.)
29. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 18: 126-127. 1891. Review of Dr.
Frank " On the Assimilation of the Free Nitrogen of the Air by
Leguminous Plants? (Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Gesell. 8: 292.
30. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 18: 1 53-156. 1891. Review of F.
Keinitz-GerlofT on the " Protoplasmic Union between the neigh-
boring Elements of the Plant? (Bot. Zeit. 49: 1, 17, 33, 49, 65.
31. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 19: 75-79. 1892. //. 125. "On
the abnormal Growth of Spirogyra Cells?
32. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 19: 132. 1892. Review of H. Zukal
on " ff alb- Flechten? (Flora, 74 : 92-107. 1891.)
33. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 19: 157-158. 1892. Review of
Gregor Kraus " On Calcium Oxalate in the Bark of Trees, (Bot.
Centr. 49 : 181. 1892.)
34. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 19: 313-317. 1892. Review of G.
Krabbe, " The Lichen Genus Cladonia? (Univ. of Berlin
35. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 20 : 100-107.. l8 93- "Anatomy as a
Special Department of Botany? Read before the A. A. A. S. at
36. " Elements of Plant Anatomy!' Ginn & Co. Boston. 1895.
37. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 23: 278-281. 1896. " What is meant
by Stein and Leaf!'
38. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 24: 214. 1897. Review of T. Chalk-
ley Palmer, " Demonstration of Absorption of Carbon Dioxide
and of the Generation of Oxygen by Diatoms!' (Proc. Acad.
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1897.)
Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United States.— X.
By JOHN K. SMALL.
THE GENUS TRADESCANTIA IN THE SOUTHERN
Six years' experience with Tradescantia, both in the field and in
the herbarium, has convinced me that there is something funda-
mentally wrong in the several existing treatments of the genus.
Since I became interested in the forms occurring in the Southern
States Dr. J. N. Rose has arranged to monograph the North
American Commellinaceae and I publish these notes with his
knowledge and consent.
Linnaeus described a single North American species, namely, 7.
Virginiana.\ Of American authors, Walter,^ Michaux,§ Pursh,||
Elliott Tf and Darby,** each described two species, while Chap-
* I have had the privilege of examining material in the herbaria of Lafayette Col-
lege, through Professor Thos. C. Porter, and of Franklin and Marshall College, through
Professor J. S. Stahr. Professor S. M. Tracy has sent me specimens at various times.
I have also received material from regions beyond the area with which this paper is
concerned, from Mr. B. F. Bush, Rev. E. J. Hill and Rev. J. M. Bales.
f Sp. PI. 288.
JF1. Car. 119.
§F1. Bor. Am. 119.
|| Fl. Am. Sept. 218.
If Bot. S. C. & Ga. 380-381.
** Bot. S. States, 547-548.